It has been a year since StreamSpace described its architecture for a new distributed CDN supported by blockchain technologies like IPFS and Hedera Hashgraph. In this time, we built development, test, and operations teams, and we now have a working testnet for passing files between publishers, nodes, and end users.
The new StreamSpace CDN features two key modes:
· a web-based mode, where customers can upload content files, manage organization access rights, track content popularity and usage, pay bills, along with numerous other features
· a desktop-based mode, where storage hosts, who we call “cachers,” can allocate storage capacity, earn tokens based on content throughput, and manage their token wallets
Here are a few of the use cases for StreamSpace’s new CDN:
1. 4K and VR video streaming. Traditional CDNs cannot support large numbers of end users stressing local servers for high bandwidth content, but a distributed mesh of peers can swarm content to end users from dozens of local servers to deliver the streams with higher end user satisfaction levels.
2. Mass deployment of IoT software updates. When time to “first frame” is less important, but total file delivery time and reliability is critical, a distributed CDN can really pay off. StreamSpace provides a permanent record of all file transfers, certifying both the transmission and successful update registration from millions of clients. StreamSpace’s thousands to millions of nodes help to reduce latency by sending file shards from any nearby peer node that holds any of the file shard fragments; they are reassembled at the client interface, and thereby limited in speed only by the client access link.
3. Non-commodity or blockchain-powered p2p marketplaces. There are hundreds of examples of marketplaces for unique goods and services, from eBay and Etsy to Fiverr and Tinder; specific transactions between sellers and buyers cannot be easily replicated, and the goods or services might be completely unique and irreproducible. Conventional centralized marketplaces such as the environments listed above charge between 3–15% commission for enabling the transaction, often bundling other financial or insurance services based on their brands. Transitioning to peer to peer services moves more control back to the buyers and sellers themselves, with blockchain proofs to certify the successful completion of all transactions. StreamSpace can support p2p markets with secure file and token transfers between buyers and sellers.
StreamSpace also offers a valuable proposition for data center operators and businesses or individuals with excess storage available and with reliable broadband connectivity. The StreamSpace “cachers” earn 1 SSH token for every 50 GB file transfer through their hosts. Popular content served dozens to thousands of times can provide a significant revenue stream for partners. Trading for the StreamSpace tokens is supported through several crypto exchanges around the world, and the StreamSpace ecosystem uses external exchange transfers to complete our dynamic tokenomics ecosystem. This ensures that cachers recognize income from their participation in our network, not just accumulate tokens.
Over the next few months, we will be rolling out our testnet to potential customers and cachers. If you are interested in exploring our service, check out our website stream.space and our social media pages, and let us know that you would like to join our revolution by submitting our “Cacher Survey” form at https://forms.gle/Ldi8U7emFtZbNCw88. Thanks!!!
StreamSpace social media pages:
- Twitter: https://twitter.com/StreamSpaceInfo
- Medium: https://medium.com/@stream_space
- LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/25019799
StreamSpace website: https://stream.space
It’s been a busy quarter for StreamSpace, both on our product development and our marketing fronts. Major accomplishments include launching the StreamSpace Bangalore Development Center, which will accelerate our alpha schedule by several months, and a number of executive engagements that showcased our leadership in blockchain video distribution.
StreamSpace Bangalore Development Center
StreamSpace launched its BDC in November, helping to accelerate the delivery date for the alpha version of StreamSpace’s distributed content delivery network (dCDN). Currently staffed with 6 talented developers, StreamSpace is ramping the center to a planned 8–10 developers by January. The new dev team will allow us to showcase a working alpha version of our service by March 2019.
Recent Development Accomplishments
The StreamSpace team demonstrated our capability to use IPFS across multiple nodes to store and distribute video files. We published architecture specifications for the video marketplace system, which will use distributed ledgers to manage the payment system for video content through whitelisted servers to the edge of the dCDN and then to content purchasers and viewers.
The StreamSpace white paper continues to evolve as the project matures. You can find our latest details and insights at https://www.stream.space/pdf/StreamSpace_White_Paper.pdf.
Digital Hollywood, Los Angeles October ‘18
Robert Binning led a panel discussion at the latest edition of Victor Harwood’s Digital Hollywood conference about evolving financing methods for video entertainment, with an emphasis on Initial Coin Offerings and related blockchain finance techniques. Co-panelists included Partners, CEOs, and General Managers from AGC Partners, Fanchise, Kochava Collective, Hollywood Portfolio, Transform Group, and Greenberg Traurig LLP.
National Association for Broadcasters (NAB Show), New York October ‘18
James Baggett was a featured panelist for the Streaming Summit, part of the NAB Fall conference in New York. Along with the chief strategist for Theta Labs, another blockchain distributed CDN project, and Akamai’s VP for Product and Operations, James shared insights about how blockchain and hashgraphs enable a new way to deploy CDNs without committing to hundreds of millions of dollars in capital infrastructure. This conference followed StreamSpace’s involvement in the April ’18 NAB Show in Las Vegas, where we demonstrated distributed content streaming from several storage devices to assemble one viewing experience.
American Film Market Conference, Santa Monica November ‘18
StreamSpace was a sponsor for the AFM Distribution Conference as well as a speaker and key contributor for the Blockchain Conference. Robert Binning shared with an audience of 500 filmmakers and influencers how StreamSpace is leveraging blockchain technologies to revolutionize royalty payment systems so filmmakers can quickly receive their fair share of project profits, and also enabling a new distribution network which will allow filmmakers to retain artistic and financial control over their film projects. Other speakers included executives from AMBI Media/TaTaTu, FilmChain, Cinemarket, Cinezen, Wardour Studios, and White Rabbit.
Independent Film Ambassador Program
StreamSpace made the decision to freeze our Film Ambassador Program in October, so we could concentrate management efforts more fully on the dCDN development rather than promoting visionary independent filmmakers without a platform to increase their ability to generate film revenues. We remain fully committed to indie film and to our partner filmmakers, and we anticipate relaunching our social media efforts in support of our ambassadors in 2019, as we begin to deploy our commercial services. We thank all of our partners for their patience and commitment to this new way of financing and commercializing video film projects.
StreamSpace expects that we will have a lot to share with the world by March 2019, beginning with our working alpha service. We will send updates for SXSW with information about where and how to see our working prototypes and how to get involved as we prepare to come to market.
Robert, James, and the rest of the StreamSpace team
Video has completely transformed the way people are entertained and informed, so it makes sense that video has driven the internet to include a superstructure of interlinked private content delivery networks, or CDNs. The huge bandwidth requirements imposed by the shift from static webpages and file downloads to video streaming forced service providers to push the most likely and popular content to the edges of the network, reducing the median time to buffer and launch the content from 20–40 seconds in the 1990s with dial-up access points down to less than 4 seconds today.
Superior content delivery performance
Video buffer incidents are often quite minor, but even one buffer delay leads viewers to reduce the time they spend on that content by 39% according to MUX. Akamai found that streaming video viewers start to abandon content when it takes just two seconds to launch; after 11 seconds launch delay, fifty percent of videos are abandoned.
Decentralization allows CDNs to scale from tens or hundreds of edge sites to thousands or potentially millions of nodes. With blockchain CDNs, the nearest content node could be as close as down the hall or next door; launch delays may be reduced to fractions of a second.
Lower capital investment and cost to serve
Conventional CDN architectures are planned to accommodate peak traffic loads with sub-second delays, so it should not come as a surprise that most servers in typical CDNs see very light loading under normal conditions. All that capacity comes at a price.
Decentralized, tokenized CDNs follow the Uber or Airbnb model instead: private owners offer their excess storage and communications capacity in return for a reasonable per-use compensation. Other than infrastructure equipment vendors, everyone wins in a shared-economy market: the CDN supplier foregoes the capital costs, the storage contributors offset some of their sunk costs, customers see lower prices for equivalent services, and new customers can explore a service they might never have considered.
One fundamental benefit of shared economy services is that participants can easily enter and leave a sharing service because the barriers of entry and exit are low. The cost and time to sign on with a shared economy service is usually very low, assuming the participant complies with local regulations. If an Uber driver finds a more lucrative full-time job, he can scale back his hours working for Uber or stop entirely. If an Airbnb host finds a full-time tenant or needs that space room for something else, she can simply block an extended period from booking through the service or drop out entirely. Similarly, a business or individual that wants to enroll and earn tokens by sharing excess IT capacity can opt into the StreamSpace CDN network quickly and easily. The two keys to maximizing token earnings are (1) choosing the most popular content to store and serve, and (2) having an optimal location, near the end users for that content. While anecdotes about expensive duds are famous, the recipes for hit movies and popular short-form YouTube videos are actually quite well known: Tell a great story, execute the production professionally, and promote the offering with a brand or image that people can recognize.
Another chief reason why video service providers adopt CDNs is to improve security, especially DDOS attack denial, since the CDN content is replicated across a large number of servers. Blockchain storage architectures such as IPFS extend that power through decentralized content replication, with an added security advantage: the blockchain stores an encrypted hash address, so only the keyholders can access the content. Only whitelisted servers are allowed to connect to a private IPFS network, reducing the risk even further. Finally, the StreamSpace CDN further breaks the video content into shards, file segments that individually are meaningless, but which combine to make a seamless video experience.
8K Virtual reality (VR) content has 25x the data density of conventional 720p HD video content and 4x the density of 4K video. Today’s conventional CDNs often struggle to support 4K video files, which require 30–50 Mbps transfer speeds; 8K VR content requires 128–200 Mbps connectivity. As more people adopt VR, we will see an explosion in VR content sharing, just as we now see 50–100% annual increases in demand for 4K video. And beyond 8K VR lie even richer media structures, like “6 Degrees of Freedom” (6DOF) and Lightfield content, which require 1–5Gbps connectivity or higher. Live media streaming adds an extra wrinkle, where content loss is more acceptable than buffer delay; extraordinarily rich VR live streaming places the viewer directly into a scene to interact with other participants to enable new and powerful experiences.
A world of distributed applications (or DApps) is just emerging to take advantage of IPFS and similar decentralized network structures. StreamSpace is exploring a range of dApps and encouraging content developers to build DApps that support the IPFS ecosystem.
StreamSpace, a blockchain startup based in Austin Texas, believes that its decentralized video content delivery network can reduce the cost to serve content by 50–70% compared to conventional CDNs. Not only does this provide an economic advantage to video creators and distributors, the StreamSpace CDN also provides an income stream for content curators who participate by contributing underutilized storage. Join the discussion with StreamSpace through our social media channels.
1. Dahl, Jon. MUX, https://mux.com/blog/buffering-reduces-video-watch-time-by-40-according-to-research/, Sept 14, 2016.
2. Krishnan, S. Shumuga and Sitaraman, Ramesh K. “Video Stream Quality Impacts Viewer Behavior: Inferring Causality Using Quasi-Experimental Designs,” https://www.akamai.com/kr/ko/multimedia/documents/technical-publication/video-stream-quality-impacts-viewer-behavior-inferring-causality-using-quasi-experimental-designs-technical-publication.pdf,IMC’12,November 14–16, 2012, Boston, Massachusetts, 2012.
Dear StreamSpace Community Member,
Thank you for being part of our community! We want to keep you abreast of what we’re up to across a variety of technical and business development fronts.
Films vs Books: A Never-Ending Debate
The debate about whether a book or film based on the book is superior has likely been ongoing for at least 80 years and possibly over 100 years, ever since the first film based on a book, “Frankenstein,” was brought to life by Edison Studios in 1910. Contests between book and film lovers tend to be fairly balanced; a recent poll from Debate.org is currently listed as 56% favoring books, and 44% favoring film, but films have been a larger segment of the entertainment industry for decades. The current worldwide film, TV, and video industry is worth about $325 billion per year, while the worldwide book publishing industry generates about $120 billion annually.
Book lovers tend to be passionate about their preferred medium. They love the tactile texture of paper in its binding, the mobility of a book, the ability to stop anywhere, go back or forward a section or a page, but the greatest power of a book is to transport the reader into another world. Whether fiction or nonfiction, a well-written book evokes a new and different environment, with characters that spring partly from the author, but largely from the reader’s imagination. Film lovers appreciate being immersed into a new environment that stimulates their visual and auditory senses. Theaters are best, with their large screens and huge speakers, but you can use your imagination by concentrating on a small television or tablet, too.
When is the book best? Most of the time, stories that draw events out across a long period of time or distance work best in print. A book shows the outline of its characters, and an author can take as much time as necessary to develop those characters. As the book progresses, we can feel the development of the main characters, but we also feel the discovery of finding and growing with a new friend or someone with power or someone to fear. A film shows situations, but a book really develops characters. As good as the Oscar-winning film is, only the book reader really senses the full agony and growth of the Joad family in “The Grapes of Wrath.”
When is a film best? Visual media drop the viewer into the action with an immediacy that text cannot match. A powerful score penetrates your mind and elevates the emotions portrayed on screen. Events that happen quickly (especially, action or horror films) are best captured on video, so you feel the tension and adrenaline as if you were a secondary character on the scene. The sensuality of “Babette’s Feast,” while described superbly in Isak Dinesen’s book, does not compare with the visual celebration of Gabriel Axel’s film. Dinesen’s focus is on the tension between the puritanism and fear of the host sisters vs the grace and sumptuousness of the meal prepared by their grateful servant.
Fantasy genres, including science fiction and “otherworldly” stories, fall on both sides. The “Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy” series of books by Douglas Adams is irreverent and humorous, a wacky sendup of science fiction stories. The protagonist, Arthur Dent, grows across the books by virtue of experiencing picaresque adventures, but (like other picaresque novels, such as those by Robert Heinlein), it is the reader’s imagination that brings the environments into reality.
In contrast, William Goldman’s “The Princess Bride” reads like a rough draft of the film script, setting up the visual and verbal humor that only the movie could bring to full color. The book refers to Inigo’s sword-fighting techniques by dropping the names of several famous fencing teachers, but only when we see Inigo talk through the swordfight dropping all of the names and techniques does the viewer grab the humor of the scene. And Miracle Max’s accent and phrasing when praising a mutton, lettuce, and tomato sandwich is just too precious.
The truth is that books and films do not really compete with each other; they are symbiotic. Almost every major film is an adaptation of a successful or insightful book of some form. In 2017, many blockbuster films have been based on comic book series, but these are books as well, just in a different form. And the list of top books for the year reads a lot like the list of top films a year or two later, especially in the Young Adult category.
- Debate.org. Are Movies Better Than Books? http://www.debate.org/opinions/are-movies-better-than-books . Accessed 7/6/2018.
The earliest motion pictures were a series of short 50-second films created by the French brothers, Auguste and Louis Lumiere. In 1895, they demonstrated their invention — a hybrid portable recording camera, film processing unit, and projector called the Cinemagraphe — to a paying audience. A year later, the Edison Manufacturing Company showed an improved Vitascope projector, the first commercially successful projector in the United States.
Over the past 120 years, there have been any number of twists and turns that have affected the motion pictures industry, but here are six technologies that have in turn destroyed the industry as it was known and set it on a new path:
The 1910s and 1920s saw the first explosion of film, and the Silent Era had its own slate of star actors and filmmakers: Rudolf Valentino, Charles Chaplin, Douglas Fairbanks, Buster Keaton, Ernst Lubitsch, Cecil B. DeMille, Louise Brooks, Clara Bow, Max Linder. The introduction of “talkies,” films with synchronized audio, in the mid 1920s, especially The Jazz Singer, the first talkie feature film, in 1927, led to the first upheaval of the film industry. By 1929, silent films had ceased to be box office draws, by the early 1930s, talkies were a global phenomenon. Silent film stars who couldn’t shift to newer, less emotive acting methods, disappeared, and a new generation of studios and filmmkaers took over.
Prior to and during World War II, the cinema was a standard entertainment option for most of the industrialized world; about 60% of Americans saw a film at least once a week in the war years. After 1948, however, television sets shifted from technical curiosities to standard household appliances and regular weekly movie attendance declined to about 10% of the population by 1964. Across the 1950s, between 5–7 million sets were sold each year in the US, for a cumulative installed base of 67 million units at the end of the decade, or 1.3 sets per household in 1960. Television’s popularity growth across the 1950s led Hollywood studios to adopt a “coopetition” strategy, in which the studios shifted their focus to blockbuster productions, launched production of their own television series, and also began selling rights to rebroadcast rights to pre-1948 films. The first feature film broadcast on US television was The Wizard of Oz (1939), which aired on November 3, 1956. Once again, the established Hollywood studios with their closed shop systems of producers, directors, and actors disappeared, and a new Hollywood system with distributors at the financial center took over.
3. Videotape and Digital Video Discs
The first consumer videocassette recorders were Sony’s U-matic from 1971 and Philips’ N1500 launched the following year. The development of two standardized tape formats — Sony’s Betamax (1975) and JVC’s VHS format (1976) led to an explosion of supply and demand along with rapidly declining device prices across the 1980s. Initially, studios fought the technology as a method of piracy of its copyright content, but by the mid-1980s, studios discovered that consumers were willing to rent or buy movies, and home viewing became a source of revenue as large as the theatrical release phase in many countries. Cult films and other specialized content allowed studios to make money from projects that would have been flops under other circumstances. By the mid-1990s, studios shifted more and more resources to promote DVDs, which offered many technical advantages: they could be viewed repeatedly without wearing out, they were more durable, could not be erased, and DVDs could offer more viewing formats, plus extra features not possible with VHS. DVD sales peaked in 2004.
Home entertainment revenues dramatically changed the economics of the film industry. Theatrical release schedules became marketing events for resales of old titles, and the number of profitable films exploded with this new opportunity for direct-to-consumer sales and rentals.
4. Netflix and Streaming Video
Netflix was founded by Reed Hastings and Marc Randolph in 1997 with a DVD-by-mail rental concept that attacked Blockbuster and similar retail outlets with a flat-rate pricing plan that allowed subscribers to watch and return movies without incurring late fees, a key customer dissatisfier of the traditional DVD rental industry. In 2007, Netflix launched an online streaming video on demand (SVOD) service; after 2010, Netflix began to expand internationally, and Netflix now operates services in 190 countries. Shifting to a global SVOD platform moved Netflix from being an expert in logistics to being the leader in video content distribution networking. The latest strategy shift, from film and series merchandising to integrated production and distribution, began in 2013, and is just starting to drive competitor responses by Disney (acquiring Fox Searchlight) and Amazon.
“Netflix and creative destruction” produces over one million hits on a standard Google search. Beginning with a New York Times article in 2010 and a Harvard Business Review article the following year, Netflix became one of the most documented examples of Clayton Christensen’s theory of successful disruptive businesses. The Netflix Effect first destroyed the DVD rental business leaders, Blockbuster and Hollywood Video. Then the company turned its attention toward the studios themselves, producing and distributing its own content outside the Hollywood studio distributor system, beginning with a new format, binge-watching a season’s worth of content in one long weekend, to today’s plan to make and promote as many as 80 films in 2018 alone, with a budget of $7–8 billion.
In response to this destructive stack on DVD sales, the major Hollywood distribution companies have been consolidating. Ten studios account for 90% of all theater revenues and more than 70% of all film income. Almost all of the energy of the top studios is focused on billion-dollar blockbuster productions, most of which involve multiple sequels or other forms of off-shoots. Nine of the top 10 US grossing films are sequels or spinoffs; only one, It, based on the 1986 Stephen King novel, does not stem from a previous film.
5. Augmented Reality
Creative filmmakers have described fantasies and utopian or dystopian futures since the earliest silent film days. Every decade has brought advances in set design and animation to allow a blend of live and virtual action, from King Kong in 1933 to the latest billion-dollar Star Wars film, The Last Jedi. Virtual Reality (VR) headsets were invented in 2000 as a personal way to augment reality, tricking the eyes and ears into believing that you are moving through a different and personal universe. Recent proliferation of smartphones capable of supporting virtual or augmented reality (VR/AR) experiences is enabling an explosion of new content formats that may dramatically change how consumers choose their entertainment experiences.
Currently, the industry is in its early stages, advancing rapidly in both hardware and foundational software. Video game developers have taken an early lead, modifying multiplayer games with an immersive experience. Augmented experiences for travel and immersive stories about exotic locations are starting to appear, and new standards for format will enable thousands of storytellers and filmmakers to expand into a new medium of immersive augmented reality experiences.
Bitcoin and Ethereum are foundational technologies that enable distributed apps to replace the cartels that characterize much of today’s media and entertainment industries. Blockchain platforms allow filmmakers to crowdfund their projects and keep control over their projects rather than cede the financial interest to Hollywood. Decentralized smart contracts allow intellectual property and content revenue streams to be shared with the owners. Online blockchain distribution changes the economy of deploying proprietary content networks, with peer-to-peer sharing of video content shards providing more security than traditional encrypted file formats.
Just as blockchain decentralization is transforming the world’s foreign exchange system and the online gaming industry, the same technologies are starting to transform many marketplaces, including the media and entertainment industries.
StreamSpace, www.stream.space, is one of the leaders using blockchain to disrupt the streaming video industry. StreamSpace is developing a blockchain content distribution network (CDN) and a blockchain-powered marketplace for independent filmmakers to connect with their fans and offer views of their film projects directly to consumers around the world. The project uses social media so filmmakers and fans can interact without intermediaries.
The winners of all of these technological innovations are the consumers, the fans of compelling content. From the earliest examples such as The Great Train Robbery to today, people have wanted to tell and be entertained by stories. All technological advances raise the standard for consumer entertainment, making it more powerful, more personal, and more popular. Who knows what the next decades will bring?
Photo source: WikiCommons, Director Cecil B. DeMille, page 60 of the July 1922 Photoplay.
StreamSpace, a leader in blockchain technologies for Streaming Video on Demand, is proud to announce its first annual SXSW event, a celebration of independent film at the Stephen F. Austin InterContinental Hotel on Saturday, March 10, 2018.
We welcome all SXSW film industry professionals and others interested in blockchain applications to join us and learn how StreamSpace is disrupting the SVOD industry and empowering independent filmmakers to change the way film projects are financed and discovered.
The event is free to all 2018 SXSW Film and Platinum Badge holders, plus a select group of invitees. To be considered, please contact Tanya at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Stephen F’s Bar, located on the second floor of the InterContinental Hotel, is the only restaurant with an outdoor terrace on Congress Avenue.
Saturday March 10, 2018, 5–7 pm
Special Drink for the Evening
Frozen or Rocks Margaritas!
See Stephen F. Austin InterContinental Hotel’s website for more information about Stephen F’s Bar.
Contact Tanya at email@example.com or (512) 527–3034 to be considered for our guest list or to confirm your attendance. Film and Platinum Badge holders are not required to confirm, but we would love to know beforehand, so we can greet you when you arrive.
We hope to see you there!